LXXXi PERSIA BEFORE THE REVOLUTION 495 a certain number of walled gardens are also a pleasing and profitable feature. The centre and club of a village is its bath. This is frequently paid for by the landlord, or in other cases is subscribed to and built by the villagers, who pay a fixed amount of grain per family to the bath man. In the case of small villages, the inhabitants of three or four subscribe together for a bath. The village of which I have made a study is owned by a merchant. It consists of thirty-two domed houses, built of sun-dried bricks round an enclosed square. It possesses no mosque, bath, or caravanserai. The site occupies one acre of ground ; and two walled gardens, which adjoin the village, and grow fruit trees, vines, willows, etc., have together an area of i^ acres. The population is : Men and youths . . . .20 Women . . . . 15 Children (mainly unfit for agricultural labour) 15 Total . . -So The following is the live-stock owned by the village community : Donkeys . . . . 14. Oxen and cows . . . .20 Goats and sheep . . . .150 Fowls . . . . . 50 The total cultivated area is 946 acres. Of this, 346 acres receive kanat irrigation, and the remainder is de- pendent upon rainfall. The quality of^ the soil is good. There is one kanat only, which is the property of the owner of the village, who keeps it in a proper state of repair. Should any work on it be necessary, the villagers are employed for the purpose and receive a small pay- ment. Each villager receives water every tenth day for about six or seven hours. The land is let to tenants-at-will. The owner has a representative in the village, whose duty it is to super- intend the distribution of water, to collect his master's rent and generally to act as steward of the property.